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Courbet

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Ornans, Courbet’s birthplace, is near the beautiful valley of the Doubs River, and it was here as a boy, and later as a man, that he absorbed the love of landscape. He was by nature a revolutionary, a man born to oppose existing order and to assert his independence; he had that quality of bluster and brutality which makes the revolutionary count in art as well as in politics. In both directions his spirit of revolt manifested itself. He went to Paris to study art, yet he did not attach himself to the studio of any of the prominent masters. Already in his country home he had had a little instruction in painting, and preferred to study the masterpieces of the Louvre. At first his pictures were not sufficiently distinctive to arouse any opposition, and were admitted to the Salon. Then followed the Funeral at Ornans, which the critics violently assailed: “A masquerade funeral, six metres long, in which there is more to laugh at than to weep over.” Indeed, the real offence of Courbet’s pictures was that they represented live flesh and blood. They depicted men and women as they really are and realistically doing the business in which they are engaged. His figures were not men and women deprived of personality and idealised into a type, posed in positions that will decorate the canvas. He advocated painting things as they are, and proclaimed that la verite vraie must be the aim of the artist. So at the Universal Exposition of 1855 he withdrew his pictures from the exhibition grounds and set them in a wooden booth, just outside the entrance. Over the booth he posted a sign with large lettering. It read, simply: “Courbet – Realist.” Like every revolutionary, he was an extremist. He ignored the fact that to every artist the truth of nature appears under a different guise according to his way of seeing and experiencing. Instead, he adhered to the notion that art is only a copying of nature and not a matter also of selection and arrangement. In his contempt for prettiness Courbet often chose subjects which may fairly be called ugly. But that he also had a sense of beauty may be seen in his landscapes. That sense, mingled with his capacity for deep emotion, appears in his marines – these last being his most impressive work. Moreover, in all his works, whether attractive or not to the observer, he proved himself a powerful painter, painting in a broad, free manner, with a fine feeling for colour, and with a firmness of pigment that made all his representations very real and stirring.

Alphonse Mucha

Жанр: Иностранные языки
Автор: Patrick Bade
Born in 1860 in a small Czech town, Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939) was an artist on the forefront of Art Nouveau, the modernist movement that swept Paris in the 1910s, marking a return to the simplicity of natural forms, and changing the world of art and design forever. In fact, Art Nouveau was known to insiders as the “Mucha style” for the legions of imitators who adapted the master’s celebrated tableaux. Today, his distinctive depictions of lithe young women in classical dress have become a pop cultural touchstone, inspiring album covers, comic books, and everything in between. Patrick Bade and Victoria Charles offer readers an inspiring survey of Mucha’s career, illustrated with over one hundred lustrous images, from early Parisian advertisements and posters for Sandra Bernhardt, to the famous historical murals painted just before his death, at the age of 78, in 1939.

Mucha

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Alfons Mucha ist der ungekronte Konig der Jugendstil-Illustration. Fur viele Menschen sind Muchas uberirdisch schone, von floralen Ornamentgeflechten umgegebene Frauen, die erste Assoziation mit der beliebten Kunstrichtung der Wende zum 20. Jahrhundert. Muchas Kunst, die sich uber die Jahrzehnte immer wieder neuer Beliebtheit erfreuen durfte, ist vor allem seit den 1960er Jahren nicht mehr aus dem Sortiment von Plakat- und Reproduktionsanbietern wegzudenken. Das vorliegende Werk bemuht sich nicht nur darum, einen umfassenden Uberblick uber Muchas Schaffen zu geben, sondern auch, dem Mann hinter der Kunst gerecht zu werden: seinem Leben, seiner Entwicklung als Kunstler und seinem leidenschaftlichen Patriotismus fur sein Vaterland, der damaligen Tschechoslowakei.

Schiele

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Pornografisch, unsittlich, amoralisch und letztendlich sogar „entartet“ wurde die Kunst des Egon Schiele genannt. Lange Zeit verkannt und verunglimpft, hat der geniale, von Selbstobsession getriebene Kunstler dennoch unbeirrt seine kunstlerische Suche nach der Essenz der weiblichen Sexualitat und nach einer neuen, ausgeglichenen Selbstwahrnehmung fortgesetzt; eine Suche, die in einer Vielzahl von Selbstportrats und Aktzeichnungen zum Ausdruck gebracht wurde. Dieser Band bemuht sich darum, die volle kunstlerische Bandbreite des Kunstlers zu erfassen, seine bekannten Portrats, Akte und Selbstportrats mit seinen weniger bekannten Landschafts –und Stadtebildern zu kontrastieren und einen Einblick in die Seele des umstrittenen Osterreichers zu bieten.

Klimt

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) war zum Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts nicht nur einer der einflussreichsten Kunstler, sondern grundete zudem die Bewegung der Wiener Secession. Mithilfe dieser Bewegung ubte er Kritik an der traditionellen Kunst, die sich durch ihren Widerstand gegen Veranderungen sowie Intoleranz gegenuber bestimmten modernen Vorstellungen auszeichnete. Klimt lie? sich durch den langsamen aber sicheren Niedergang sowie die Vielfalt der Kulturen der Osterreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie inspirieren. Bei Klimt spielten Erotik und Sinnlichkeit eine sehr gro?e Rolle, und neben Schiele und Kokoschka zahlte er zu den gro?en Meistern des Expressionismus. Das vorliegende Buch vereint eine erlesene Auswahl Klimts bekanntester Gemalde und einen Text, der den au?ergewohnlichen Eklektizismus dieses gro?en Kunstlers zu vermitteln vermag.

Burne-Jones

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Edward Coley Burne–Jones (Birmingham, 1833 – Londres, 1898) Toute loeuvre de Burne-Jones peut etre comprise comme une tentative de creer par la peinture un monde de beaute parfaite, aussi different du Birmingham de son enfance que possible, un conglomerat industriel, mugissant, dune laideur et dune misere inimaginables. Les deux grands peintres symbolistes francais, Gustave Moreau et Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, reconnurent immediatement Burne-Jones comme lun de leurs compagnons de route artistique. Mais il est tres invraisemblable que Burne-Jones ait accepte ou peut-etre meme compris letiquette de «symboliste ». Pourtant, il semble avoir ete lun des membres les plus representatifs du mouvement symboliste et de cet esprit «fin de siecle » si largement repandu. Burne-Jones est generalement catalogue comme preraphaelite. En realite, il ne fut jamais membre de la confrerie formee en 1848. La branche du preraphaelisme dont releve Burne-Jones nest pas celle dun Hunt ou dun Millais mais de Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Le travail de Burne-Jones de la fin des annees 1850 est dailleurs tres proche du style de Rossetti. Son ideal feminin est egalement inspire de celui de Rossetti, caracterise par des chevelures abondantes, des mentons affirmes, des cous longs et des corps androgynes caches par damples robes medievales. Les mentons affirmes demeurent un trait frappant que les deux artistes utiliserent dans leurs tableaux de femmes. A partir des annees 1860, leurs canons de beaute divergent. Celles de Burne-Jones se font de plus en plus virginales et etherees, au point que dans certaines de ses oeuvres ultimes les jeunes femmes ont lair anorexique. Au debut des annees 1870, Burne-Jones a peint de nombreux tableaux illustrant des mythes ou des legendes dans lesquels il semble avoir tente dexorciser le traumatisme de son histoire avec Mary Zambaco. De Constable a Francis Bacon, aucun peintre anglais vivant ne jouit dune reconnaissance internationale aussi importante que celle dont Burne-Jones fit lobjet au debut des annees 1890. Sa grande reputation commenca a decliner des la seconde moitie de la decennie et seffondra apres 1900 avec le triomphe du Modernisme. A posteriori, nous pouvons interpreter cette absence de relief et ce detournement de la narration comme les caracteristiques dun modernisme precoce, les premiers pas hesitants vers labstraction. Il nest donc pas etrange que Kandinsky mentionne Rossetti et Burne-Jones comme les precurseurs de labstraction dans son livre Du spirituel dans lart et dans la peinture en particulier.

Munch

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Edvard Munch (Loten, 1863 – Ekely, 1944) Munch peut etre considere comme le pionnier de lexpressionnisme dans la peinture moderne. Il a beneficie tot de la reputation dun artiste dune nouvelle epoque marquante en Allemagne et en Europe centrale, et aujourdhui son oeuvre et son statut sont depuis longtemps reconnus dans toute lEurope et le monde. Les oeuvres de Munch les plus connues sont celles des annees 1890, notamment Le Cri. La frequentation dans la deuxieme moitie des annees 1880 de J?ger (auteur norvegien) et de son cercle danarchistes radicaux marque un tournant decisif dans la vie de Munch et est la source dune mutation et dun conflit interne. A lautomne 1889 Munch a droit a une grande exposition de ses oeuvres a Christiana, ou lEtat lui accorde une bourse dartiste pour 3 ans. Paris, ou il devient pour un moment leleve de Leon Bonnat, est une destination logique. Mais limpulsion la plus importante, il la ressent en sorientant dans la vie artistique de la ville. Cest a cette epoque que perce un mouvement post-impressionniste avec plusieurs experiences anti- aturalistes. Dans ses tableaux dominent les grandes lignes courbes et les zones de couleurs homogenes, une implification et une stylisation utilisee par Paul Gauguin et les synthetistes francais. «Symbolisme - la nature a ete formee dans une ambiance morale » ecrit Munch. A lautomne 1892 Munch presente les fruits de son sejour francais. A la suite de cette exposition il est invite par le «club dart de Berlin » (Berlines Kunstverein), ou ces memes oeuvres doivent etre exposees. Mais cela finit par un cauchemardesque «succes de scandale ». Le public et les vieux peintres comprennent Munch comme une provocation anarchiste, et lexposition est fermee a cause de la protestation.

Mucha

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Entre courbes et contre-courbes, Mucha crea, a la fin du XIXe siecle, une egerie nouvelle qui devait hanter les rues de Paris. Au fil des representations de Sarah Bernhard, cette muse voluptueuse devint un veritable embleme de lArt nouveau et offrit a laffichiste succes et renommee. Neanmoins, le talent de lartiste ne se limita jamais a la lithographie. Nourri par cette passion dexalter, au mieux, la sensualite du monde qui lentourait, lart de Mucha, sexprima indifferemment tant sur les monumentaux panneaux decoratifs des salles a manger que sur les petites pieces delicates de porcelaine. Cest toute la richesse et la variete de cet artiste fin-de-siecle que nous fait redecouvrir ici lauteur.

Schiele

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Egon Schiele (Tulln, 1890 – Vienne,1918) L’oeuvre d’Egon Schiele est tellement singuliere qu’elle resiste a toute categorisation. Admis a l’Academie des Beaux-Arts de Vienne des l’age de seize ans, ce fut un artiste extraordinairement precoce, dont le talent consomme pour le maniement de la ligne, plus que tout autre chose, conferait une tension expressive a toute son oeuvre. Profondement convaincu de sa propre importance en tant qu’artiste, Schiele realisa plus de choses dans sa jeunesse, brutalement abregee, que beaucoup d’artistes dans toute leur existence. Ses racines puisaient dans le Jugendstil du mouvement de la Secession Viennoise. Comme toute sa generation, il tomba sous l’influence ecrasante de l’artiste le plus illustre et charismatique de Vienne, Gustav Klimt. A son tour, Klimt reconnut le remarquable talent de Schiele et encouragea le jeune artiste, qui au bout de deux ans, rompait deja avec la sensualite decorative de son mentor. Amorcant une intense periode de creativite vers 1910, Schiele entama un intrepide expose de la forme humaine – sans oublier la sienne – si penetrant, qu’il est clair que l’examen auquel il se livrait etait plus psychologique, spirituel et emotionnel, que physique. Il peignit plusieurs vues urbaines, paysages, portraits formels et sujets allegoriques, mais ce sont ses oeuvres sur papier, extremement candides, parfois ouvertement erotiques, et son penchant pour les modeles trop jeunes, qui rendirent Schiele vulnerable a la critique morale. En 1912, il fut soupconne et emprisonne pour une serie d’atteintes aux moeurs incluant le kidnapping, le viol et la debauche publique. Les accusations les plus graves (toutes sauf celle de debauche publique) furent abandonnees, mais Schiele passa environ trois semaines desesperees en prison. En Allemagne, les cercles expressionnistes offrirent un accueil tiede au travail de Schiele. Son compatriote, Kokoschka, reussissait beaucoup mieux dans ce domaine. Tandis qu’il admirait les artistes munichois du Blaue Reiter, par exemple, ceux-ci le repoussaient. Plus tard, pendant la Premiere Guerre mondiale, son oeuvre se fit mieux connaitre et, en 1916, Schiele fut presente dans un numero de magazine expressionniste de gauche, base a Berlin, Die Aktion, et on finit par l’apprecier. Il fut considere tres tot comme un genie. Cela lui valut le soutien d’un petit groupe de collectionneurs et d’admirateurs tres patients. Neanmoins, pendant plusieurs annees, ses finances furent precaires. Il avait souvent des dettes et etait parfois force d’utiliser du materiel bon marche, de peindre sur du papier d’emballage marron ou du carton, au lieu du papier et des toiles reserves aux artistes. Ce n’est qu’en 1918, qu’il connut son premier succes public notable a Vienne. Tragiquement, quelque temps plus tard, il fut emporte avec sa femme, Edith, par l’epidemie massive de grippe de 1918, qui venait de tuer Klimt et des millions d’autres victimes, et ils moururent a quelques jours d’intervalle. Schiele n’avait que vingt-huit ans.

Klimt

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Gustav Klimt (Baumgarten, 1862 – Vienne, 1918) «Faire un autoportrait ne minteresse pas. Les sujets de peinture qui minteressent ? Les autres et en particulier les femmes… » Aucune reference au monde exterieur ne vient contrarier le charme des allegories, portraits, paysages et autres personnages que lartiste peint. Des couleurs et des motifs dinspiration orientale (Klimt a ete tres influence par le Japon, lancienne Egypte et la Ravenne byzantine), un espace bidimentionnel depourvu de profondeur et une qualite souvent stylisee de limage, autant delements utilises par le peintre pour creer une oeuvre seduisante, ou le corps de la femme sexpose dans toute sa volupte. A 14 ans, il obtient une bourse dEtat pour entrer a la Kunstgewerbeschule (lEcole viennoise des Arts et Metiers). Tres vite, ses talents de peintre et de dessinateur saffirment. Ses toutes remieres oeuvres lui valent un succes inhabituellement precoce. Sa premiere grande initiative date de 1879 : il cree cette annee-la la Kunstlerkompagnie (la compagnie des artistes) avec son frere Ernst, et Franz Matsch. A Vienne, la fin du XIXe siecle est une periode deffervescence architecturale. Lempereur Francois- Joseph decide, en 1857, de detruire les remparts entourant le coeur medieval de la ville. Le Ring, finance par largent du contribuable, est alors construit : de magnifiques residences y cotoient de superbes parcs. Ces changements profitent a Klimt et a ses associes, leur fournissant de multiples occasions de faire montre de leur talent. En 1897, Klimt, accompagne de quelques amis proches, quitte la tres conservatrice Kunstlerhausgenossenschaft (Societe cooperative des artistes autrichiens) ; il fonde le mouvement Secession et en prend la presidence. La reconnaissance est immediate. Au-dessus du porche dentree de ledifice, concu par Jose Maria Olbrich est inscrite la devise du mouvement : «A chaque age son art, a lart sa liberte. » A partir de 1897, Klimt passa pratiquement tous ses etes sur lAttersee, en compagnie de la famille Floge. Durant ces periodes de paix et de tranquillite, il eut loccasion de peindre de nombreux paysages qui constituent un quart de son oeuvre complete. Klimt execute des croquis preparatoires a la plus grande partie de ses realisations. Parfois, il execute plus de cent etudes pour un seul tableau. Le caractere exceptionnel de loeuvre de Klimt tient peut-etre a labsence de predecesseurs et de reels disciples. Il admirait Rodin et Whistler sans les copier servilement. En retour, il fut admire par les peintres viennois de la jeune generation, tels Egon Schiele et Oskar Kokoschka.

Burne-Jones

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Burne-Jones’ oeuvre can be understood as an attempt to create in paint a world of perfect beauty, as far removed from the Birmingham of his youth as possible. At that time Birmingham was a byword for the dire effects of unregulated capitalism – a booming, industrial conglomeration of unimaginable ugliness and squalor. The two great French symbolist painters, Gustave Moreau and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, immediately recognised Burne-Jones as an artistic fellow traveller. But, it is very unlikely that Burne-Jones would have accepted or even, perhaps, have understood the label of ‘symbolist’. Yet he seems to have been one of the most representative figures of the symbolist movement and of that pervasive mood termed “fin-de-siecle”. Burne-Jones is usually labelled as a Pre-Raphaelite. In fact he was never a member of the Brotherhood formed in 1848. Burne-Jones’ brand of Pre-Raphaelitism derives not from Hunt and Millais but from Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Burne-Jones’ work in the late 1850s is, moreover, closely based on Rossetti’s style. His feminine ideal is also taken from that of Rossetti, with abundant hair, prominent chins, columnar necks and androgynous bodies hidden by copious medieval gowns. The prominent chins remain a striking feature of both artists’ depictions of women. From the 1860s their ideal types diverge. As Rossetti’s women balloon into ever more fleshy opulence, Burne-Jones’ women become more virginal and ethereal to the point where, in some of the last pictures, the women look anorexic. In the early 1870s Burne-Jones painted several mythical or legendary pictures in which he seems to have been trying to exorcise the traumas of his celebrated affair with Mary Zambaco. No living British painter between Constable and Bacon enjoyed the kind of international acclaim that Burne-Jones was accorded in the early 1890s. This great reputation began to slip in the latter half of the decade, however, and it plummeted after 1900 with the triumph of Modernism. With hindsight we can see this flatness and the turning away from narrative as characteristic of early Modernism and the first hesitant steps towards Abstraction. It is not as odd at it seems that Kandinsky cited Rossetti and Burne-Jones as forerunners of Abstraction in his book, “Concerning the Spiritual in Art”.

Munch

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Edvard Munch, born in 1863, was Norways most popular artist. His brooding and anguished paintings, based on personal grief and obsessions, were instrumental in the development of Expressionism. During his childhood, the death of his parents, his brother and sister, and the mental illness of another sister, were of great influence on his convulsed and tortuous art. In his works, Munch turned again and again to the memory of illness, death and grief. During his career, Munch changed his idiom many times. At first, influenced by Impressionism and Post-impressionism, he turned to a highly personal style and content, increasingly concerned with images of illness and death. In the 1892s, his style developed a ‘Synthetist idiom as seen in The Scream (1893) which is regarded as an icon and the portrayal of modern humanitys spiritual and existential anguish. He painted different versions of it. During the 1890s Munch favoured a shallow pictorial space, and used it in his frequently frontal pictures. His work often included the symbolic portrayal of such themes as misery, sickness, and death. and the poses of his figures in many of his portraits were chosen in order to capture their state of mind and psychological condition. It also lends a monumental, static quality to the paintings. In 1892, the Union of Berlin Artists invited Munch to exhibit at its November exhibition. His paintings invoked bitter controversy at the show, and after one week the exhibition closed. In the 1930s and 1940s, the Nazis labeled his work “degenerate art”, and removed his works from German museums. This deeply hurt the anti-fascist Munch, who had come to feel Germany was his second homeland. In 1908 Munchs anxiety became acute and he was hospitalized. He returned to Norway in 1909 and died in Oslo in 1944.

Mucha

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
Born in 1860 in a small Czech town, Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939) was an artist on the forefront of Art Nouveau, the modernist movement that swept Paris in the 1910s, marking a return to the simplicity of natural forms, and changing the world of art and design forever. In fact, Art Nouveau was known to insiders as the “Mucha style” for the legions of imitators who adapted the master’s celebrated tableaux. Today, his distinctive depictions of lithe young women in classical dress have become a pop cultural touchstone, inspiring album covers, comic books, and everything in between. Patrick Bade and Victoria Charles offer readers an inspiring survey of Mucha’s career, illustrated with over one hundred lustrous images, from early Parisian advertisements and posters for Sandra Bernhardt, to the famous historical murals painted just before his death, at the age of 78, in 1939.

Klimt

Жанр: Изобразительное искусство, фотография
Автор: Patrick Bade
“I am not interested in myself as a subject for painting, but in others, particularly women…”Beautiful, sensuous and above all erotic, Gustav Klimt’s paintings speak of a world of opulence and leisure, which seems aeons away from the harsh, post-modern environment we live in now. The subjects he treats – allegories, portraits, landscapes and erotic figures – contain virtually no reference to external events, but strive rather to create a world where beauty, above everything else, is dominant. His use of colour and pattern was profoundly influenced by the art of Japan, ancient Egypt, and Byzantium. Ravenne, the flat, two-dimensional perspective of his paintings, and the frequently stylised quality of his images form an oeuvre imbued with a profound sensuality and one where the figure of woman, above all, reigns supreme. Klimt’s very first works brought him success at an unusually young age. Gustav, born in 1862, obtained a state grant to study at Kunstgewerbeschule (the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts) at the age of fourteen. His talents as a draughtsman and painter were quickly noticed, and in 1879 he formed the Kunstlercompagnie (Artists’ Company) with his brother Ernst and another student, Franz Matsch. The latter part of the nineteenth century was a period of great architectural activity in Vienna. In 1857, the Emperor Franz Joseph had ordered the destruction of the fortifications that had surrounded the medieval city centre. The Ringstrasse was the result, a budding new district with magnificent buildings and beautiful parks, all paid for by public expenses. Therefore the young Klimt and his partners had ample opportunities to show off their talents, and they received early commissions to contribute to the decorations for the pageant organised to celebrate the silver wedding anniversary of the Emperor Franz Joseph and the Empress Elisabeth. In 1894, Matsch moved out of their communal studio, and in 1897 Klimt, together with his closest friends, resigned from the Kunstlerhausgenossenschaft (the Cooperative Society of Austrian Artists) to form a new movement known as the Secession, of which he was immediately elected president. The Secession was a great success, holding both a first and second exhibition in 1898. The movement made enough money to commission its very own building, designed for it by the architect Joseph Maria Olbrich. Above the entrance was its motto: “To each age its art, to art its freedom.” From around 1897 onward, Klimt spent almost every summer on the Attersee with the Floge family. These were periods of peace and tranquillity in which he produced the landscape paintings constituting almost a quarter of his entire oeuvre. Klimt made sketches for virtually everything he did. Sometimes there were over a hundred drawings for one painting, each showing a different detail – a piece of clothing or jewellery, or a simple gesture. Just how exceptional Gustav Klimt was is perhaps reflected in the fact that he had no predecessors and no real followers. He admired Rodin and Whistler without slavishly copying them, and was admired in turn by the younger Viennese painters Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka, both of whom were greatly influenced by Klimt.


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